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Essential Reading

Fc Effector Function Contributes to the Activity of Human Anti-CTLA-4 Antibodies -

Effector function allows antibodies to communicate with a large portion of the immune system. Now, it looks like anti-CTLA4 antibodies can also take advantage of this, but depleting regulatory T cells. Effector signaling is complicated and important enough there is surely much engineering still to be done.

Antibiotic tolerance facilitates the evolution of resistance -

An interesting paper on the relationship between the development of tolerance and resistance. It’s in bacteria but surely has direct ties to selectively toxic drugs in cancer as well. They show that tolerance can directly enable rare, resistance-causing mutations to develop. They also come up with an explanation for why tolerance would develop before resistance—the routes to tolerance are by many different mutational changes, while resistance had a more restrictive set of routes.

Reprogramming the immunological microenvironment through radiation and targeting Axl -

This work shows that in addition to being a tumor cell-intrinsic resistance factor to ionizing radiation, AXL signaling drives decreased MHC-I abundance and immunosuppressive cytokine expression. The AXL-proximal signaling that drives this effect is not worked out—it would be interesting to know what signaling is involved to determine how specific this is to TAM receptors vs. other kinases.

Ten Simple Rules for Better Figures -

Practical advice for how to best present scientific data. As stated in the article, “a more accurate definition for scientific visualization would be a graphical interface between people and data.”

Coumadin/warfarin clinical reference list

We frequently are asked about the use of warfarin in cancer patients and whether it is linked to survival. This is a list of a few studies found in the literature.